Introduction and Basic Principles: Basic Idea of relay protection, Nature and causes of faults, Zones of protection, Primary and back-up protection, Basic principle of operation of protective system, Methods of discrimination, Derivation of single phase quantity from three phase quantity, Components of Protection.
Relay (Principle, Construction and Characteristics): Relay classification, Principal Types of Electromagnetic relays, Theory of Induction relay torque, Relay design and construction, General Equations of Comparators and Electromagnetic Relays, Over Current relays, Directional relays, Distance relays, Differential relays. Book-1: CH 1.1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9.
Fault analysis using symmetrical components: Symmetrical & unsymmetrical faults. 3-Phase systems, Significance of positive, negative and zero sequence components, Average 3-phase power in terms of symmetrical components, sequence impedance, fault calculations, Single line to ground fault, Line to ground fault with Zf, Faults in Power systems, Concept of short circuit capacity of a Bus. Book-3: CH 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.10, 13.13.
Feeder Protection: Overcurrent, Distance and Pilot Protection Schemes. Book-1: CH 5.2, 5.3, 5.4.
Apparatus Protection: Transformer Protection, Generator Protection, Motor Protection, Bus zone protection schemes. Book-1: CH 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5.
Static Relays: Comparators and different relays.
Amplitude comparator, Phase Comparator, Coincidence type phase comparator, Basic elements of a static relay, OverCurrent Relays, Differential Protection, Static distance Protection. Book-1: CH 11.1, 11.2, 11.3 & CH 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4.
Block Diagram of Numerical Relay, Signal Sampling & Processing , Numerical Over-current protection, Numerical Transformer differential Protection, Numerical distance Protection of Transmission Line. Book-2: CH 11.2, 11.3, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9.
Switchgears: Autoreclosing fundamentals, Circuit breaker rating, Circuit constants and circuit conditions, Theory of Circuit interruption, Restriking voltage transients, characteristics of Restriking Voltage, Interaction between breaker and circuit, Current chopping, Automatic switch, Air-break circuit breakers, Oil circuit breakers, Air-blast circuit breakers, Vacuum circuit breakers, SF6 circuit breakers, DC circuit breakings.
Book-1: CH 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, CH 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 14.2,14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.5, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4.
Switched Mode Power Supply:
Isolated switched mode power supplies, Forward converter, Fly back converter,Half bridge converter, Bridge converter, Push pull converter, Cuk converter, resonant converter, Switched mode power supply with multiple outputs
(1.5, 1.7 SMPS Design and Construction by H W Whittington, Universities Press)
Multi output Boost Converter, Diode rectifier fed boost converter, State space analysis of regulators.
(5.10,5.11 and 5.13 Power Electronics, Circuits, Devices and Applications by M H Rashid,Pearson)
SMPS Control: Control requirements and technique, PWM controller, Isolation in the feed back loop, Power supplies with multiple outputs
(3.3 SMPS Design and Construction by H W Whittington, Universities Press)
Voltage Fed Converters:
Pulse width modulation techniques, Sinusoidal PWM, Selected harmonic elimination PWM, Space vector PWM, Hysteresis band current control PWM, Sigma delta modulation
Three level inverters, Resonant inverters, Soft switched inverters Current Fed Converters:
Load commuted inverters, Forced commutated inverters, Inverters with self commutated devices (5.5,5.6,5.7,5.8,5.9,6.3,6.4,6.7,220.127.116.11,6.8 Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives by Bimal K Bose, Eastern Economy Edition, PHI)
AC voltage controllers with PWM Control, Matrix Converter
(11.10,11.11 Power Electronics, Circuits, Devices and Applications by M H Rashid, Pearson)
Application: High Voltage DC Transmission, Interconnection of renewable energy sources and energy storage system to the utility grid, Active harmonic filter
(11.4, 17.2, 17.4 Power Electronics: Converters , Applications and Design by Mohan, Undeland and Robbin, Wiley India Edition)
Terms & Definitions: General Classes of Power Quality Problems, Transients, Long Duration Voltage Variations, Short-Duration Voltage Variations, Voltage Imbalance, Waveform Distortion, Voltage Fluctuations, Power Frequency Variations, Power Quality Terms.
Voltage Sags & Interruptions: Sources of Sags and Interruptions, Estimating Voltage Sag Performance, Fundamental Principles of Protection, Solutions at the End-User Level, Evaluating the Economics of Different Ride-Through Alternatives, Motor Starting Sags, Utility System Fault-Clearing Issues.
(Chapter-2: 2.2 to 2.10 and Chapter-3: 3.1 to 3.7)
Transient Over Voltages: Sources of Transient Over Voltages, Principle of Over Voltage Protection, Devices for Over Voltage Protection, Utility Capacitor-Switching Transients, Utility System Lightning Protection, Managing Ferro-resonance, Switching Transient Problems with Loads, Computer Tools for Transient Analysis.
Fundamentals of Harmonics: Harmonic Distortion, Voltage Versus Current Distortion, Harmonics Versus Transients, Power System Quantities under Non-sinusoidal Conditions, Harmonic Indices, Harmonic Sources from Commercial Loads, Locating Harmonic Sources, System Response Characteristics, Effects of Harmonic Distortion, Inter-harmonics.
(Chapter-4: 4.1 to 4.8 and Chapter-5: 5.1 to 5.11)
Long Duration Voltage Variations: Principles of Regulating the Voltage, Devices for Voltage Regulation, Utility Voltage Regulator Application, Capacitors for Voltage Regulation, End-User Capacitor Application, Regulating Utility Voltage with Distributed resources, Flicker.
Power Quality Monitoring: Monitoring Considerations, Historical Perspective of Power Quality Measuring Instruments, Power Quality Measurement Equipments, Assessment of Power Quality Measurement Data, Application of Intelligent Systems, Power Quality Monitoring Standards.
(Chapter-7: 7.1 to 7.7 and Chapter-11: 11.1 to 11.6)
Performance Indices: Selection of Performance Index, Calculus of variations: Variation and its properties, Euler-Lagrange Equation.
Linear Quadratic Regulator: Formulation of Algebraic Riccati Equation (ARE), Solving the ARE using the Eigenvector Method, Optimal systems with prescribed poles, Linear Quadratic Regulator for Discrete Systems on an infinite Time Interval.
Book-1: 5.1, 5.2, 5.2.1, 5.2.2, 5.3, 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.3, 5.3.5.
Dynamic Programming: Discrete Time Systems, Discrete Linear Quadratic Regulator Problem, Continous Minimum Time Regulator Problem, The Hamilton Jacobi Belman Equation.
Pontryagins Minimum Principle: Optimal control with constraints on inputs.
Book-1: 5.4, 5.4.1, 5.4.2, 5.4.3, 5.4.4, 5.5, 5.5.1.
Optimal Observers-the Kalmanfilter: The linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) problem, Loop Transfer Recovery (LTR). H8 Control: H8 Control Solution, Sub-optimal linear regulators: Continuous Time Systems, Discrete Time Systems, Introduction to Stochastic Optimal Linear Estimation and Control.
Book-2: 10.3, 10.4, 10.6, 10.7, 10.7.1, 10.7.2, 10.7.3. Book-3: 11.7, 12.1, 12.2.
Introduction to state of satellite communication: Orbital mechanics and parameters, look angle determination, Launches and Lunch vehicle, Orbital effects in communication system performance. Attitude and orbit control system(AOCS), TT&C , Description of spacecraft System - Transponders,
Equipment reliability and space qualification.
Satellite Link Design: Basics of transmission theory, system noise temperature and G/T ratio, Uplink and Downlink design, design of satellite links for specified (C/N) performance.
Analog telephone and television transmission: Energy dispersal, digital transmission.
Multiple Access: Multiplexing techniques for satellite links, Comprehensive study on FDMA, TDMA and CDMA. Spread Spectrum Transmission and Reception. Estimating Channel requirements, SPADE, Random access.
Application of Satellite communication: Network distribution and direct broad casting TV, fundamentals of mobile communication satellite
Propagation on satellite: Earth paths and influence on link design: Quantifying attenuation and depolarization, hydrometric & non hydrometric effects, ionosphere effects, rain and ice effects.
Satellite Antennas: Types of antenna and relationships , Basic Antennas Theory - linear, rectangular & circular aperture. Gain, pointing loss.
Earth station Technology: Earth station design, Design of large antennas - Cassegrain antennas, optimizing gain of large antenna, antenna temperature, feed system for large cassegrain antennas.
Design of small earth station antennas: Front fed paraboloid reflector antennas, offset fed antennas, beam steering, Global Beam Antenna, equipment for earth station.
Introduction: Digital Image fundamentals: Image sampling and quantization, relationship between pixels, Intensity transformations and spatial filtering, some basic intensity transformation functions, Histogram processing, spatial filters for smoothing and sharpening (Chapt: 2 & 3 of Text book 1)Module - II
Filtering in the Frequency Domain: preliminary concepts, 2D DFT and its properties, basic filtering in the frequency domain, image smoothing and sharpening (Chapt: 4 of Text book 1) Image Restoration and Reconstruction: Image restoration/degradation model, noise models, restoration in the presence of noise only, estimating the degradation function (Chapt: 5 of Text Book 1)Module - III
Color Image Processing: color models, Color transformation (Chapt: 6 of Text book 1) Wavelets and Multi-resolution Processing: multiresolution expansions, wavelet transforms in one and two dimension (Chapt: 7 of Text book 1) Image Compression: Fundamentals, Some basic compression methods (Chapt: 8 of Text book 1) Morphological Image Processing: Erosion and Dilation, opening and closing (Chapt: 9 of Text book 1)Text Books:
Introduction: Functional Units, Classification, Performance characteristics, Dynamic Calibration, Errors: An Overview, Statistical Error Analysis, Reliability and Related Topics (Chapter 1 of Text book)
Instruments for Analysis: Introduction, Gas Analysers, Liquid Analysers, X-ray Methods, Chromatography (Chapter 8 of Text Book)
Telemetry: Introduction, Pneumatic Means, Electrical Means, Frequency Telemetring, Multiplexing, Modulation, Modulation of Digital Data, Transmission Channels, Briefing of a Telemetry System in Operation, Wireless I/O (Chapter 10 of Text Book).Module - III
Power Plant Instruments: Introduction, The Power Plant Scheme, Pressure, Temperature, Flow and Level, Vibration and Expansion, Analysis, Flue Gas Analysis (Chapter 12 of Text Book)
Hazard and Safety: Initial consideration, Enclosures, Intrinsic Safety, Prevention of Ignition, Methods of Production, Analysis Evaluation and Construction (Chapter 13 of Text Book)
Embedded System: Understanding the Basic Concepts:
Introduction to Embedded System: Embedded Systems Vs General Computing Systems, History of Embedded Systems, Classification of Embedded Systems, Major Application Areas of Embedded Systems, Purpose of Embedded Systems, 'Smart' running shoes from Adidas - The Innovative bonding of Life Style with Embedded Technology.
The Typical Embedded System: Core of the Embedded System, Memory, Sensors and Actuators, Communication Interface, Embedded Firmware, Other System Components, PCB and Passive Components.
Characteristics and Quality Attributes of Embedded System: Characteristics of Embedded System, Quality Attributes of Embedded System.
Embedded Systems - Application and Domain Specific: Washing Machine - Application Specific Embedded System, Automotive - Domain Specific Example for Embedded System.
Hardware Software Co-Design and Program Modeling: Fundamental Issues in Hardware Software Co-Design, Computational Models in Embedded Design, Introduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML), Hardware Software Trade-offs.
Design and Development of Embedded Product:
Embedded Hardware Design and Development: Analog Electronic Components, Digital Electronic Components, VLSI and Integrated Circuit Design, Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Tools.
Embedded Firmware Design and Development: Embedded firmware Design Approaches, Embedded firmware Development Languages, Programming in Embedded 'C'.
Real Time Operating System (RTOS) based Embedded System Design: Operating System Basics, Types of Operating Systems, Tasks, Process and Threads, Multiprocessing and Multitasking, Task Scheduling, Threads, Processes and Scheduling: Putting them altogether, Task Communication, Task Synchronisation, Device Drivers, How to choose an RTOS.
Design and Development of Embedded Systems:
An Introduction to Embedded System Design with VxWorks and MicroC/OS-II (µCOS-II) RTOS: VxWorks, MicroC/OS-II (µCOS-II).
Integration and Testing of Embedded Hardware and Firmware: Integration of Hardware & Firmware, Board Power up.
The Embedded System Development Environment: Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Types of files generated on cross-compilation, Disassembler/Decompiler, Simulators, Emulators & Debugging, Target Hardware Debugging, Boundary Scan.
Product Enclosure Design & Development: Product Enclosure Design Tools, Product Enclosure Development Techniques.
Embedded Product Development Life Cycle (EDLC): Definition and Objectives of EDLC, Different Phases of EDLC, EDLC Approaches (Modeling the EDLC).
Trends in the Embedded Industry: Processor Trends in Embedded System, Embedded OS Trends, Development Language Trends, Open standards, Frameworks and Alliances, Bottlenecks.
Introduction to different sources of energy and general discussion on their application to generation, Indian Energy Scenario. (Nag-1.5)
Load duration curves, Load Factor, Capacity Factor, Reserve Factor, Demand Factor, Diversity Factor, Plant Use Factor, Base Load, Intermediate Load and Peak Load Plants. (Nag-1.2)
ECONOMICS OF POWER GENERATION:
Construction costs, Fixed cost and Depreciation, Fuel cost, Economic scheduling principle, Annual Operating Costs, Effect of Load Factor on cost per kWh. (Vopat- 29.2- 29.5, 29.13-29.22, Nag-1.4)
NUCLEAR POWER STATION:
Introduction to fission & fusion, reactor construction, controlled chain reaction, operational control of reactors, Brief study of various types of reactors (Boiling water, pressurized water, heavy water, breeder) , Location and layout of nuclear power plant (Nag- 9.5, 9.6, 9.13, 9.15 - 9.21
HYDEL POWER STATION:
Selection of site for hydro-electric power plant. (Nag-10.4)
Hydrology: Hydrological cycle, precipitation, run-off and its measurement, hydrograph, flow duration and mass curves, Estimation of amount stored by a dam across the river, Storage and Pondage. (Vopat- 25.2, 25.3, 25.5, Nag - 10.5 - 10.7)
Turbines: Operational principle of Kaplan and Francis Turbine and Pelton wheel, Speed and Pressure Regulation, Work done, efficiency ( Vopat - Chapter-26, Nag- 10.10 - 10.15, 10.24 - 10.25)
Essential Elements of a Hydro-electric Power Plant: Catchment area, Reservoir, Dam, Head Gate, Spillways, Pen stock, Surge Tanks, Scroll case, Draft tubes and Tail Race, Power House, Classification of Hydroelectric Power Plants. (Vopat- 25.6 - 25.9, Nag- 10.8, 10.9)
Governors, Plant auxiliaries (Nag - 10.21)
THERMAL POWER STATION:
Selection of site for thermal power plant. (Vopat-31.3, Nag-1.3)
Overall Block Diagram indicating the air circuit, coal and ash circuit, water and steam circuit, various types of steam turbines, ash and coal handling system, High Pressure and High capacity water tube boilers, Economizer, Superheaters, De-Superheater, Re-heater, Air Pre-heater. (Vopat - 7.4, Chap-8, Chap-10, Nag-2.15, 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6.4-6.6, 6.8, 6.12 - 6.15 )
Draft System: Natural, Induced Forced and Balance Draft, PA fan, FD fan, ID fan, Chimney. (Vopat - 9.1, 9.4, Nag- 4.14.1, 4.14.3, 4.15)
Condensers, Feed water heaters, Evaporators, Make-up water, Bleeding of steam, Cooling water system. (Vopat- 14.1, 14.6, 18.2, 18.13, Nag - 8.1- 8.6),
Electrostatic Precipitator: Basic working Principle and constructional details (Nag-6.10)
Governors, Plant auxiliaries (Vopat- 12.14)
Objective of the Course: The course aims at introducing the basic concepts of marketing to the undergraduate students in engineering. The learning shall help the students in better designing, manufacturing and selling product/ service packages keeping competitive market, customers and cost in view.Module - I
Marketing Management: Concept, Process, Functions and relevance in the current context.
Marketing Environment: Elements of micro and macro environment
Competition Analysis: Factors contributing to competition, porter's five forces model, Identifying and analyzing competitors.
Marketing Planning: Exploring Opportunity, Product -market selection, Marketing Planning Process.
Market Research and Information Systems: Research Process, The Internet and World Wide Web based Information collection and processing, Database, Data Warehouses and Data Mining, Global Market Research.
Consumer Behavior: Factors influencing consumer behavior, consumer decision process.
Organizational buying behavior.
Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning: Definition, Bases of segmenting consumer and Industrial markets. Target Market strategies: Market Positioning.
Market Demand Forecasting: Key Terms, Forecasting Tools: Short term tools: Moving average and Exponential smoothing methods, Long-term forecasting Tools: Time series analysis, Econometrics methods, Qualitative tools : Buying Intention Survey, Sales Force Opinion and Delphi Techniques.
Product Planning: Product Life Cycle, New Product Development Process, Branding Strategy, Positioning a Brand, Brand Equity, Packaging and Labeling, Product-mix and Product Line, Planned Obsolescence.
Pricing Decision: Objectives and Factors influencing pricing, Pricing method and strategies.
Integrated Marketing Communication(IMC)- Concept of IMC, the marketing communication process, Promotion Mix, elements of promotion mix, Direct marketing.
Channels of Distributions: Types of intermediaries, functions of distribution channels, channel levels, Designing Distribution Channels, Physical Distribution, Supply Chain Management (Basic only).
Trends in Marketing: Green Marketing, Customer Relationship Management, E-marketing, Rural Marketing and Service Marketing (concepts only)
Objective: The course aims at acquainting all engineering graduates irrespective of their specializations the basic issues and tools of managing production and operations functions of an organization.Module - I