Understanding Entrepreneurship: Concept of Entrepreneurship, Motivation for Economic Development and Entrepreneurial Achievement, Enterprise and Society Why and how to start Business - Entrepreneurial traits and skills, Mind Vrs Money in Commencing New Ventures, Entrepreneurial success and failures, Environmental dynamics and change.
Entrepreneurial Process: Step by step approach to entrepreneurial start up Decision for Entrepreneurial start up.
Setting up of a small Business Enterprise: Identifying the Business opportunity - Business opportunities in various sectors, formalities for setting up small enterprises in manufacturing and services, Environmental pollution and allied regulatory and non-regulatory clearances for new venture promotion in SME sector. Writing a Business plan, components of a B-Plan, determining Bankability of the project.Module - III
Institutional Support for SME: Central / State level Institution promoting SME. Financial Management in small business. Marketing Management, problems & strategies. Problems of HRM - Relevant Labour - laws. Sickness in Small Enterprises: Causes and symptoms of sickness - cures of sickness. Govt. policies on revival of sickness and remedial measures.Reference Books:
Transmission Line Parameters:
Types of Conductors, Resistance, Tabulated Resistance Values, Inductance of a Conductor due to Internal Flux, Flux Linkages between Two Points External to an Isolated Conductor, Inductance of a Single Phase Two Wire Line, Flux Linkages of One Conductor in a Group, Inductance of Composite-Conductor Lines, The Use of Tables, Inductance of a Three Phase Line with Equilateral Spacing, Inductance of a Three Phase Line with Unsymmetrical Spacing, Inductance Calculations for Bundled Conductors.
Book-1:Ch. 4.1, Ch. 4.2, Ch. 4.3, Ch. 4.4, Ch. 4.5, Ch. 4.6, Ch. 4.7, Ch. 4.8, Ch. 4.9, Ch. 4.10, Ch. 4.11, Ch. 4.12.
Resistance, Inductance, Capacitance (Book - 1, Ch.5)
Electric Field of a Long, Straight Conductor, The Potential Difference between Two Points due to a Charge, Capacitance of a Two Wire Line, Capacitance of a Three Phase Line with Equilateral Spacing, Capacitance of a Three Phase Line with Unsymmetrical Spacing, Effect of Earth on the Capacitance of a Three Phase Line, Capacitance Calculations for Bundled Conductors, Parallel-Circuit Three Phase Lines.
Book-1:Ch. 5.1, Ch. 5.2, Ch. 5.3, Ch. 5.4, Ch. 5.5, Ch. 5.6, Ch. 5.7, Ch. 5.8.
Transmission Line Performances:
Short, Medium & Long Transmission Lines.
Representation of Lines, Short Transmission Lines, The Medium Transmission Lines, The Long Transmission Line: Interpretation of Equations, The Long Transmission Line: Interpretation of Equations, The Long Transmission Line: Hyperbolic Form of The Equations, The Equivalent Circuit of a Long Line, Power Flow Through Transmission Line, Reactive Compensation of Transmission Line.
Book-1:Ch. 6.1, Ch. 6.2, Ch. 6.3, Ch. 6.4, Ch. 6.5, Ch. 6.6, Ch. 6.7, Ch. 6.8, Ch. 6.9.
HVDC Transmission (Book - 2, Ch.15)
Introduction, Types of DC Links, Advantages of DC Transmission, Incorporating HVDC into AC system, Converter station Equipment, Ground Return, Earth Electrode, Station Earth, Reliability of HVDC Systems, Recent Advances, HVDC Systems in India.
Book-2:Ch. 15.1, Ch. 15.2, Ch.15.3, Ch. 15.4, Ch. 15.5, Ch. 15.6, Ch. 15.7, Ch. 15.8, Ch. 15.9, Ch.15.10.
Overhead Line Insulators (Book - 2, Ch.4)
Insulator Materials, Types of Insulators, Voltage Distribution over Insulator String, Improvement of String Efficiency, Insulator Failure, Testing of Insulators.
Book-2:Ch. 4.1, Ch. 4.2, Ch.4.3, Ch. 4.4, Ch. 4.5, Ch. 4.6.
Mechanical Design of Overhead Transmission Lines
General Considerations, Line Supports, Types of Steel Towers, Cross Arms, Span, Conductor Configuration, Spacings and Clearances, Sag and Tension Calculations, Erection Conditions, Factors affecting Sag, Sag Template, Catenary, Conductor Vibration.
Book-2:Ch. 5.1, Ch. 5.2, Ch. 5.3, Ch. 5.4, Ch. 5.5, Ch. 5.6, Ch. 5.7, Ch. 5.8, Ch. 5.9, Ch.5.10, Ch.5.11.
Distribution (Book - 2, Ch.16)
Comparison of various Distribution Systems, AC three-phase four-wire Distribution System, Types of Primary Distribution Systems, Types of Secondary Distribution Systems, Voltage Drop in DC Distributors, Voltage Drop in AC Distributors, Kelvin's Law, Limitations of Kelvin's Law, General Design Considerations, Load Estimation, Design of Primary Distribution, Sub-Stations, Secondary Distribution Design, Economical Design of Distributors, Design of Secondary Network, Lamp Flicker, Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems.
Book-2:Ch. 16.1, Ch. 16.2, Ch.16.3, Ch. 16.4, Ch. 16.5, Ch. 16.6, Ch. 16.7, Ch. 16.8, Ch. 16.9, Ch.16.10, Ch. 16.11, Ch. 16.12, Ch.16.13, Ch. 16.14, Ch. 16.15, Ch. 16.16, Ch. 16.17.
Underground Cables (Book - 2, Ch. 8)
Introduction, Insulation, Sheath, Armour and Covering, Classification of Cables, Pressurized Cables, Effective Conductor Resistance, Conductor Inductive Reactance, Parameters of Single Core Cables, Grading of Cables, Capacitance of Three Core Belted Cable, Breakdown of Cables, Cable Installation, Current Rating of Cables, System Operating Problems with Underground Cables, HVDC Cables.
Book-2:Ch. 8.1, Ch. 8.2, Ch.8.3, Ch. 8.4, Ch. 8.5, Ch. 8.6, Ch. 8.7, Ch. 8.8, Ch. 8.9, Ch.8.10, Ch. 8.11, Ch. 8.12, Ch.8.13, Ch. 8.14, Ch. 8.15.
Power System Earthing: (Book - 2, Ch.18)
Soil Resistivity, Earth Resistance, Tolerable Step and Touch Voltage, Actual Touch and Step Voltages, Design of Earthing Grid.
Book-2: Ch. 18.4, Ch. 18.5, Ch. 18.6, Ch. 18.7, Ch. 18.8.
Introduction: Soft Computing Constituents and Conventional Artificial Intelligence, Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing Characteristics.
Fuzzy Sets: Introduction, Basic Definitions and Terminology, Set Theoretic Operations, MF Formulation and Parameterization.
Fuzzy Rules & Fuzzy Reasoning: Extension Principle and Fuzzy Relations, Fuzzy If-Then Rules, Fuzzy Reasoning.
Fuzzy Inference Systems: Mamdani Fuzzy Models, Sugeno Fuzzy Models, Tsukamoto Fuzzy Models, Other Considerations.
(BOOK-1:- Chap-1: 1.1 to 1.3, Chap-2: 2.1 to 2.4, Chap-3: 3.2 to 3.4 & Chap-4: 4.2 to 4.5)
Neural Networks: Neuron Abstraction, Neuron Signal Functions, Mathematical Preliminaries, Neural Networks Defined, Architectures: Feed forward and Feedback, Salient Properties and Application Domains of Neural Networks, Multi-layered Network Architectures, Back-propagation Learning Algorithm, Practical Considerations in Implementing the BP Algorithm, Structure Growing Algorithms, Universal Function Approximation and Neural Networks, Applications of Feed Forward Neural Networks,
Reinforcement Learning, Radial Basis Function Networks, Regularization Theory Route to RBFNs, Generalized Radial Basis Function Network, Learning in RBFNs, Associative Learning, Hopfield Network, Content Addressable Memory, Bidirectional Associative Memory, Self Organizing Feature Maps, Applications of the Self Organizing Map.
(BOOK-2:-Chap-3: 3.1 to 3.6, Chap-6: 6.1 to 6.2, 6.5 to 6.6 & 6.8 to 6.10, Chap-8: 8.4 to 8.7, Chap-10: 10.2 & 10.5 to 10.6 & 10.16 and Chap-12: 12.8 to 12.9)
Regression & Optimization: System Identification: an Introduction, Least Squares Estimator, Geometric Interpretation of LSE, Recursive Least Squares Estimator.
Derivative-Free Optimization: Genetic Algorithms, Simulated Annealing, random Search, Downhill Simplex Search.
Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS): ANFIS Architecture, Hybrid Learning Algorithm.
(BOOK-1:- Chap-5: 5.1, 5.3 to 5.5, Chap-7: 7.2 to 7.5 and Chap-12: 12.2 to 12.3)
Process Control: Introduction: Process Definition, Feedback Control, PID Control, Multivariable Control. (Chapter 1 of Text Book 1).
PID Controller Tuning: Introduction, Zeigler-Nichols Tuning Method (Based on Ultimate Gain and Period, and Process Reaction Curve), Digital PID Controllers. (Chapter 13 of Text Book 2).
Special Control Structures: Cascade Control, Feedfroward Control, Feedfroward-Feedback Control Configuration, Ratio Control, Selective Control, Adaptive Control, Adaptive Control Configuration. (Chapter 10 and 11 of Text book 3)
Actuators: Introduction, Pneumatic Actuation, Hydraulic Actuation, Electric Actuation, Motor Actuators and Control Valves. (Chapter 8 of Text Book 1)
Industrial Automation: Programmable Logic Controllers: Introduction, Principles of operation, Architecture, Programming (Programming Languages, Ladder Diagram, Boolean Mnemonics) (Chapter 5 of Text Book 1)
Distributed Control: Distributed vs. Centralized, Advantages, Functional Requirements, System Architecture, Distributed Control Systems (DCS), Communication options in DCS. (Chapter 6 of Text Book 1)
Real-time Programming: Multi-tasking, Task Management, Inter-task Communication, Real-time Operating System. (Chapter 9 of Text Book 1)
Introduction: Historical Perspective, VLSI Design Methodologies, VLSI Design Flow, Design Hierarchy, Concept of Regularity, Modularity and Locality, VLSI Design Styles, Computer-Aided Design Technology.
Fabrication of MOSFETs: Introduction, Fabrication Processes Flow - Basic Concepts, The CMOS n-Well Process, Layout Design Rules, Stick Diagrams, Full-Customs Mask Layout Design.
MOS Transistor: The Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Structure, The MOS System under External Bias, Structure and Operation of MOS Transistor (MOSFET), MOSFET Current-Voltage Characteristics, MOSFET Scaling and Small-Geometry Effects, MOSFET Capacitance.
(Chapter 1 to 3 of Text Book 1 and for Stick Diagram Text Book 2)
MOS Inverters - Static Characteristics: Introduction, Resistive-Load Inverters, Inverters with n-Type MOSFET Load, CMOS Inverter.
MOS Inverters - Switching Characteristics and Interconnect Effects: Introduction, Delay-Time Definitions, Calculation of Delay-Times, Inverter Design with Delay Constraints, Estimation of Interconnect Parasitics, Calculation of Interconnect Delay, Switching Power Dissipation of CMOS Inverters.
Combinational MOS Logic Circuits: Introduction, MOS Logic Circuits with Depletion nMOS Loads, CMOS Logic Circuits, Complex Logic Circuits, CMOS Transmission Gates (Pass Gates).
(Chapter 5 to 7 of Text Book 1)
Sequential MOS Logic Circuits: Introduction, Behaviour of Bistable Elements, SR Latch Circuits, Clocked Latch and Flip-Flop Circuits, CMOS D-Latch and Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop.
Dynamic Logic Circuits: Introduction, Basic Principles of Pass Transistor Circuits, Voltage Bootstrapping, Synchronous Dynamic Circuit Techniques, Dynamic CMOS Circuit Techniques, High Performance Dynamic CMOS Circuits.
Semiconductor Memories: Introduction, Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), Non-volatile Memory, Flash Memory.
Design for Testability: Introduction, Fault Types and Models, Ad Hoc Testable Design Techniques, Scan-Based Techniques, Built-In Self-Test (BIST) Techniques, Current Monitoring IDDQ Test.
HVDC Transmission: Introduction, Equipment required for HVDC Systems, Comparison of AC and DC Transmission, Limitations of HVDC Transmission Lines, Reliability of HVDC Systems, Comparison of HVDC Link with EHVAC Link, HVDC-VSC Transmission Systems.
HVDC Converters: Introduction, HVDC Converter Valves and Valve Assembly, HVDC-Voltage Source Converters: Principle and Operation, 3-phase 6-pulse Converters using SCRs or Thyristors, 12-pulse Bridge Converters.
6-Pulse Converter Operation and Analysis: Introduction, Conduction Sequence in 6-pulse Converter Configuration, The Ideal Commutation Process without Gate Control, DC Output Voltage, Gate Control (Phase Control) of Valves, Analysis of Voltage Waveforms with Overlap Angle (µ), Complete Characteristics of Converter as Rectifier/Inverter, Analysis of 12-pulse Converter, Power Flow in HVDC Links, Operation and Analysis of VSC Converters.
(Chapter-1: 1.3 to 1.6 & 1.9 to 1.10, Chapter-2: 2.5 to 2.8 and Chapter-3: 3.2 to 3.6 & 3.8 to 3.11)
Control of HVDC Converter and Systems: Mechanism of AC Power Transmission, Principle of Control, Necessity of Control in case of a DC link, Rectifier Control, Compounding of Rectifiers, Power Reversal in a DC Link, Voltage Dependent Current Order Limit (VDCOL)-Characteristics of the Converter, System Control Hierarchy and Basic Philosophy, Inverter Extinction Angle Control (EAG), Pulse Phase Control, Starting and Stopping of a DC Link, Constant Power Control, Control Systems for HVDC Converters, Inverter Operation Problems, Control of VSC Converters.
Harmonics in HVDC Systems: Importance of Harmonic Study, Generation of Harmonics by Converters, Characteristic Harmonics on the DC Side, Characteristic Current Harmonics, Characteristic variations of Harmonic Currents with Variation of a µ, Effect of Control modes on Harmonics, Non-Characteristic Harmonics, Harmonics in VSC Converters. (Chapter-4: 4.2 to 4.16 and Chapter-5: 5.2 to 5.9)
Harmonic Suppression in HVDC System-Filters: Harmonic Model & Equivalent Circuit, Use of Filters, Filter Configurations, Design of a Band-Pass Filter, Design of High-Pass Filters, Protection of Filters, DC Filters.
Faults and Protection Schemes in HVDC Systems: Nature and Types of Faults, Faults on AC Side of Converter Stations, Converter Faults, Faults on DC Side of the System, Protection against Over Currents/ Over Voltages, Protection of Filter Units.
Multi-terminal HVDC Systems: Types of Multi-terminal (MTDC) Systems, Parallel Operation Aspects of MTDC, Paralleling (Disconnecting) of Units or Converter, Control of Power in MTDC, VSC-Multi-level DC Systems.
(Chapter-6: 6.2 to 6.5 & 6.7 to 6.8, 6.10, Chapter-8: 8.2 to 8.7 and Chapter-10: 10.2 to 10.6)
FACTS concept and General System Considerations: Transmission Interconnections, Flow of Power in an AC System, What limits the Loading Capability, Power Flow and Dynamic Stability Considerations of a Transmission Interconnection, Relative Importance of Controllable Parameters, Basic Types of FACTS Controllers, Basic Description and Definitions of FACTS Controllers.
Static Shunt Compensation: Objectives of Shunt Compensation, Methods of Controllable VAR Generation, Static VAR Compensators, SVC and STATCOM.
(Chapter-1: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 and 1.7) (Chapter-5: 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3)
Static Series Compensators: Objective of Series Compensation (GCSC, TSSC, TCSC), Variable Impedance Type Series Compensators, Switching Converter Type Series Compensators (SSSC)
Static Voltage and Phase Angle Regulators: Objectives of Voltage and Phase Angle Regulators, Approaches to Thyristor-Controlled Voltage and Phase Angle Regulators (TCVRs and TCPARs).
(Chapter-6: 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3) (Chapter-7: 7.1 and 7.2)
Combined Compensators: Introduction, Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), The Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC), Generalized and Multifunctional FACTS Controllers. (Chapter-8: 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4)
Discrete - Time Control Systems:
Introduction: Discrete Time Control Systems and Continuous Time Control Systems, Sampling Process.
Digital Control Systems: Sample and Hold, Analog to digital conversion, Digital to analog conversion.
The Z-transform: Discrete-Time Signals, The Z-transform, Z-transform of Elementary functions, Important properties and Theorms of the Z-transform. The inverse Z-transform, Z-Transform method for solving Difference Equations.
Z-Plane Analysis of Discrete Time Control Systems: Impulse sampling & Data Hold
Reconstruction of Original signals from sampled signals: Sampling theorm, folding, aliasing.
Pulse Transfer function: Starred Laplace Transform of the signal involving Both ordinary and starred Laplace Transforms; General procedures for obtaining pulse Transfer functions, Pulse Transfer function of open loop and closed loop systems.
Mapping between the s-plane and the z-plane, Stability analysis of closed loop systems in the z-plane: Stability analysis by use of the Bilinear Transformation and Routh stability critgion, Jury stability Test.
Book No. 1: 1.1; 1.2; 1.4; 2.1; 2.2; 2.3; 2.4; 2.5; 2.6; 3.2; 3.4; 3.5; 4.2; 4.3.
State Variable Analysis & Design:
Introduction: Concepts of State, State Variables and State Model (of continuous time systems): State Model of Linear Systems, State Model for Single-Input-Single-Output Linear Systems, Linearization of the State Equation.
State Models for Linear Continuous - Time Systems: State-Space Representation Using Physical Variables, State - space Representation Using Phase Variables, Phase variable formulations for transfer function with poles and zeros, State - space Representation using Canonical Variables, Derivation of Transfer Function for State Model.
Diagonalization: Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Generalized Eigenvectors.
Solution of State Equations: Properties of the State Transition Matrix, Computation of State Transition Matrix, Computation by Techniques Based on the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, Sylvester's Expansion theorm.
Concepts of Controllability and Observability: Controllability, Observability, Effect of Pole-zero Cancellation in Transfer Function.
Pole Placement by State Feedback, Observer Systems. State Variables and Linear Discrete - Time Systems: State Models from Linear Difference Equations/z-transfer Functions, Solution of State Equations (Discrete Case), An Efficient Method of Discretization and Solution, Linear Transformation of State Vector (Discrete-Time Case), Derivation of z-Transfer Function from Discrete-Time State Model.
Book No. 2: 12.1 to 12.9.
Introduction: Behaviour of Non linear Systems, Investigation of nonlinear systems.
Common Physical Non Linearities: Saturation, Friction, Backlash, Relay, Multivariable Nonlinearity.
The Phase Plane Method: Basic Concepts
Singular Points: Nodal Point, Saddle Point, Focus Point, Centre or Vortex Point,
Stability of Non Linear Systems: Limit Cycles,
Construction of Phase Trajectories: Construction by Analytical Method, Construction by Graphical Methods.
The Describing Function Method: Basic Concepts: Derivation of Describing Functions: Dead-zone and Saturation, Relay with Dead-zone and Hysteresis, Backlash.
Stability Analysis by Describing Function Method: Relay with Dead Zone, Relay with Hysteresis, Stability Analysis by Gain-phase Plots.
Jump Resonance. Liapunov's Stability Analysis: Introduction, Liapunov's Stability Critrion: Basic Stability Theores, Liapunov Functions, Instability.
Direct Method of Liapunov & the Linear System: Methods of constructing Liapunov functions for Non linear Systems.
Book No. 2: 13.1 to 13.4; 15.1 to 15.10.
Data-Link Protocol and Data Communications Networks: Data-link Protocol Function, Character and bit Oriented Data Link Protocols. Asynchronous Data Link Protocols, Synchronous Data-Link Protocols, Synchronous Data -Link Control, High-Level Data Link Control, Public Switched Data Networks, CCITTX. 25, User-to-Network Interface Protocol. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) (Chapter 23)Module - II
Digital T-Carriers and Multiplexing: Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM); T1 Digital Carrier. North American Digital Hierarchy. Digital Carrier Line Encoding. T Carrier Systems, Digital Carrier Frame Synchronization. Bit Vrs Word Interleaving. Statistical TDM. Codecs and Combo Chips. FDM. AT & T's FDM Hierarchy. Composite Base band Signal . Formation of Master group. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) (Chapter 11)
Cellular Telephone Concepts: Mobile telephone service, Cellular Telephone, Frequency Reuse, Interefernce, Cell Splitting, Sectoring, Segmentation, and dualization, Cellular System Topology, Roaming and Hand ofs, Cellular Telephone Network Components, Cellular Telephone call Processing (Chapter 19)
Data Communication and Networking: Data Communication Network Architecture, Protocols, and standards, Layered Network Architecture, Introduction to GSM, GPRS, CDMA (Chapter 20)
Satellite Communication: Introduction, Keepler's Law, Satellite Orbir\ts, geosynchronous satellites, Antenna Look Angles, Satellite Classifications, spacing and frequency allocation, Satellite Antenna Radiation patterns, Satellite System Link Models, Satellite System Parameters, Satellite System Link Equations, Link Budget (Chapter 25)
Satellite Multiple Accessing Arrangements: Introduction, FDM/FM Satellite Systems, Multiple Access Techniques, Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), TDMA, CDMA, Channel Capacity, Satellite Radio NavigationEstimating Channel Requirements, Practical Demand Access Systems, Random Access, Multiple Access With On Board Processing. VSAT (Chapter 26)
Fundamentals of Power System (Book No.1, Ch. 1)
Introduction, Single Subscript Notation, Double Subscript Notation, Power in Single Phase AC Circuit, Complex Power, The Power Triangle, Direction of Power Flow, Voltage and Current in Balanced Three Phase Circuits, Power in Balanced Three Phase Circuits, Per- Unit Quantities, Changing the Base in Per- Unit Quantities, Node Equations, The Single Line or One Line Diagram, Impedance and Reactance Diagrams. (Book-1:Ch. 1.1, Ch. 1.2, Ch. 1.3, Ch. 1.4, Ch. 1.5, Ch. 1.6, Ch. 1.7, Ch. 1.8, Ch. 1.9, Ch. 1.10, Ch. 1.11, Ch. 1.12, Ch. 1.13, Ch. 1.14.)
The Admittance Models & Network Calculations (Book - 1) Ch. 7 (7.1 To 7.5)
Branch and Node Admittances, Mutually Coupled Branches in Ybus, An Equivalent Admittance Network, Modification of Ybus, The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus. (Book-1:Ch. 7.1, Ch. 7.2, Ch. 7.3, Ch. 7.4, Ch. 7.5.)
Power Flow Solutions (Book - 1, Ch. 9)
The Power-Flow Problem, The Gauss-Seidal Method, The Newton-Raphson Method, The Newton-Raphson Method, Power-Flow Studies in System Design and Operation, Regulating Transformers, The Decoupled Method. (Book-1:Ch. 9.1, Ch. 9.2, Ch. 9.3, Ch. 9.4, Ch. 9.5, Ch. 9.6, Ch. 9.7.)
Economic Operation of Power System
Distribution of Load between Units within a Plant, Distribution of Load between Plants, The Transmission-Loss Equation, An interpretation of Transformation C, Classical Economic Dispatch with Losses, Automatic Generation Control, Unit Commitment, Solving the Unit Commitment Problems.
(Book-1: Ch. 13.1, Ch. 13.2, Ch. 13.3, Ch. 13.4, Ch. 13.5, Ch. 13.6, Ch. 13.7, Ch. 13.8.)
Load Frequency Control, Control Area Concept (Book - 2, Ch.9)
Automatic Load-Frequency Control of Single Area Systems: Speed-Governing System, Hydraulic Valve Actuator, Turbine-Generator Response, Static Performance of Speed Governor, Closing the ALFC Loop, Concept of Control Area, Static Response of Primary ALFC Loop, Dynamic Response of ALFC Loop, Physical Interpretation of Results, The Secondary ("Reset") ALFC Loop, Economic Dispatch Control.
(Book - 2: Ch. 9.3.1, Ch. 9.3.2, Ch. 9.3.3,Ch. 9.3.1, Ch. 9.3.4, Ch. 9.3.5, Ch. 9.3.6, Ch. 9.3.7, Ch. 9.3.8, Ch. 9.3.9, Ch. 9.3.10, Ch. 9.3.11.)
Two Area System. ALFC of Multi-Control-Area Systems (Pool Operation): The Two Area Systems, Modeling the Tie-Line, Block Diagram Representation of Two Area System, Mechanical Analog of Two Area System, Dynamic Response of Two Area System, Static System Response, Tie-Line Bias Control of Multi-area Systems. (Book - 2: Ch. 9.4.1, Ch. 9.4.2, Ch. 9.4.3 Ch. 9.4.1, Ch. 9.4.4, Ch. 9.4.5, Ch. 9.4.6, Ch. 9.4.7, Ch. 9.4.8, Ch. 9.4.9, Ch. 9.4.10.)
Power System Stability (Book-1, Ch.16)
The Stability Problem, Rotor Dynamics and the Swing Equation, Further Considerations of the Swing Equations, The Power-Angle Equation, Synchronizing Power Coefficients, Equal- Area Criterion for Stability, Further Applications of the Equal-Area Criterion, Multi-machine Stability Studies: Classical Representation, Step-By-Step Solution of the Swing Curve, Computer Programs for Transient Stability Studies, Factors Affecting Transient Stability. (Book-1:Ch. 16.1, Ch. 16.2, Ch. 16.3, Ch. 16.4, Ch. 16.5, Ch. 16.6, Ch. 16.7, Ch. 16.8, Ch. 16.9, Ch. 16.10, Ch. 16.11.)
Fundamentals of Biomedical Instrumentation: Sources of Biomedical Signals, Basic Medical Instrumentation System, Intelligent Medical Instrumentation Systems, PC Based Medical Instrumentation Systems, General Constraints & Regulations of Medical Devices Biomedical Signals & Electrodes: Origin of Bioelectric Signals-Repolarization, Depolarization, Resting Potential Recording Electrodes - Ag-AgCl Electrodes, Electrodes for ECG, EEG, EMG, Microelectrodes, Skin Contact Impedance, Motion Artifacts.Module - II
Physiological Transducers: Introduction to Physiological Transducers, Classification of Transducers, Pressure Transducers, Transducers for Body Temperature Measurement, Biosensors, Smart Sensors Biomedical Recording Systems: Basic Recording Systems, General Considerations for Signal Conditioners, Biomedical Signal Analysis Techniques, Signal Processing Techniques, Writing Systems: Direct Writing Recorders, Inkjet Recorder, Potentiometric Recorders, Digital Recorders Biomedical Recorders: Electrocardiograph (ECG), Phonocardiograph, Electroencephalograph (EEG), Electromayograph (EMG)Module - III
Patient Monitoring Systems: System Concepts, Measurement of Heart Rate, Blood Pressure Measurement, Measurement of Respiration Rate Blood Flow meters: Electromagnetic Blood Flow meter, Ultrasonic Blood Flow meter, NMR Blood Flow meter, Laser-Doppler Blood Flow meter Patient Safety: Electric Shock Hazards, Leakage Currents, Safety Codes for Biomedical Equipment.Text Books:
Introduction: Adaptive Systems - Definition and characteristics, General properties, Open and Closed Loop Adaptations, Applications.
The Adaptive Linear Combiner: Performance function, Gradient and Mean Square Error, Examples.
Theory of Adaptation with Stationary Signals: Properties of the Quadratic Performance Surface, Significance of eigen values, eigen vectors, coorelation matrix.
Searching the Proformance Surface: A simple gradient search algorithm, Stability and Rate of convergence, the learning curve.
Gradient Estimation and its effects on Adoption: The performance penalty, Variance of the gradient estimate, Misadjustment.
Adaptive Algorithms and Structures: The LMS Algorithm, Convergence, learning Curve, Performanece analysis, Filtered X LMS algorithm,
Applications: Adaptive Modeling and System Identification using adaptive filter, Inverse Adaptive Modeling, Deconvolution, and equalization using adaptive filter, Adaptive Control Systems using Filtered X LMS Algorithm, Adaptive Noise Cancellation using Adaptive filter.
Sensors and Transduceers:- Sensors and transducers, Performance terminology, Displacement, position and proximitry, Velocity and motion, Force, Fluid pressure, Liquid flow, Liquid level, Temperature, Light sensors, Selection of sensors, Inputting data by switches. Book - 1: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12.
Signal conditioning: Signal conditioning, The operational amplifier, Protection, Filtering, Pulse modulation.
Book - 1: 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6.
Digital Signals: Digital signals, Analogue and digital signals, digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital converters, Multiplexers, Data acquisition, Digital signal processing. Book - 1: 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6.
Pneumatic and Hydraulic Actuation Systems: Actuation systems, Pneumatic and hydraulic systems, Directional control valves, Pressure control valves, Cylinders, Servo and proportional control valves, process control valves, Rotary actuators.
Book - 1: 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8.
Mechanical Actuation Systems: Mechanical systems, Types of motion, Kinematic chains, Cams, GTears, Belt and chain drives, bearings, Mechanical aspects of motor selection. Book - 1: 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9.
Electrical Actuation Systems: Electrical systems, Mechanical switches, Solid-state switches, Solenoids, D.C. motors, A.C. motors, Stepper motors.
Book - 1: 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7.
Basic System Models: Mathematical models, Mechanical system building blocks, Electrical system building blocks, Electrical system building blocks, Fluid system building blocks, Thermal system building blocks.Book - 1: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5.
System Models: Engineering systems, Rotational-translational systems, Electromechanical systems, Electromechanical systems, Linearity, Hydraulic-mechanical systems, Summary, Problems.
Book - 1: 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5.
Closed-loop Controllers: Continuous and discrete control processes, Terminology, Two-step mode, Proportional mode, Derivative control, Integral control, PID controller, Digital controllers, Control system performance, Controller tuning, Velocity control, Adaptive control, Summary, Problems.
Book - 1: 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12.
Programmable Logic Controllers: Introduction to PLCs, Basic Structure of a PLC, Principles of Operation, PLCs versus Computers, Introduction to Internal Architecture and Hardware Components, PLC Programming, Analog I/O, Selecting a PLC for the Application, Application of PLCs for Control.
Book - 2: 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9.
Any 10 experiments out of which atleast 7 experiments from Group-A and 3 experiments from Group-B.Group A: HARDWARE BASED