Ecological Concepts: Biotic components, Ecosystem Process: Energy, Food Chain, Water cycle, Oxygen cycle, Nitrogen cycle etc., Environmental gradients, Tolerance levels of environment factor, EU, US and Indian Environmental Law. Chemistry in Environmental Engineering: Atmospheric chemistry, Soil chemistry. Noise pollution- Noise standards, measurement and control.
Water Treatment: water quality standards and parameters, Ground water. Water treatment processes, Pre-treatment of water, Conventional process, Advanced water treatment process.
Occupational Safety and Health Acts, Safety procedures, Type of Accidents, Chemical and Heat Burns, Prevention of Accidents involving Hazardous substances, Human error and Hazard Analysis. Hazard Control Measures in integratednsteel industry, Petroleum Refinery, L.P.G. Bottling, Pharmaceutical industry. Fire Prevention - Detection, Extinguishing Fire, Electrical Safety, Product Safety. Safety Management- Safety Handling and Storage of Hazardous Materials, Corrosive Substances, Gas Cylinders, Hydro Carbons and Wastes. Personal Protective Equipments.Text Books:
Idea of Engineering optimization problems, Classification of optimization algorithms, Modeling of problems and principle of modeling.
Linear programming: Formulation of LPP, Graphical solution, Simplex method, Big-M method, Revised simplex method, Duality theory and its application, Dual simplex method , Sensitivity analysis in linear programming.
Transportation problems: Finding an initial basic feasible solution by Northwest Corner rule, Least Cost rule, Vogel's approximation method, Degeneracy, Optimality test, MODI method, Stepping stone method.
Assignment problems: Hungarian method for solution of Assignment problems
Integer Programming: Branch and Bound algorithm for solution of integer Programming Problems
Queuing models: General characteristics, Markovian queuing model, M/M/1 model, Limited queue capacity, Multiple server, Finite sources, Queue discipline.
Non-linear programming: Introduction to non-linear programming.
Unconstraint optimization: Fibonacci and Golden Section Search method.
Constrained optimization with equality constraint: Lagrange multiplier, Projected gradient method.
Constrained optimization with inequality constraint: Kuhn-Tucker condition, Quadratic programming. Introduction to Genetic Algorithm.
The Z-Transform and Its Application to the Analysis of LTI Systems: The Z-Transform: The Direct Z-Transform, The Inverse Z-Transform; Properties of the Z-Transform; Inversion of the Z-Transforms: The Inversion of the Z-Transform by Power Series Expansion, The Inversion of the Z-Transform by Partial-Fraction Expansion; Analysis of Linear Time-Invariant Systems in the z-Domain: Response of Systems with rational System Functions, Transient and Steady-State Responses, Causality and Stability, Pole-Zero Cancellations. Selected portions from Chapter 3 (3.1.1, 3.1.2, 3.2, 3.4.2, 3.4.3, 3.5.1, 3.5.2, 3.5.3, 3.5.4) of Textbook - I
The Discrete Fourier Transform: Its Properties and Applications
Frequency Domain Sampling: Frequency-Domain Sampling and Reconstruction of Discrete--Time Signals, The Discrete Fourier Transform, The DFT as a Linear Transformation, Relationship of the DFT to other Transforms; Properties of the DFT: Periodicity, Linearity, and Symmetry Properties, Multiplication of Two DFTs and Circular Convolution, Additional DFT Properties; Linear Filtering Methods Based on the DFT: Use of the DFT in Linear Filtering, Filtering of Long Data Sequences; Frequency Analysis of Signals using the DFT; The Discrete Cosine Transform: Forward DCT, Inverse DCT, DCT as an Orthogonal Transform. Chapter - 7 of Textbook - 1.
Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems: Structure for the Realization of Discrete-Time Systems, Structure for FIR Systems: Direct-Form Structure, Cascade-Form Structures, Frequency-Sampling Structures; Structure for IIR Systems: Direct-Form Structures, Signal Flow Graphs and Transposed Structures, Cascade-Form Structures, Parallel-Form Structures. Selected portions from Chapter 9 (9.1, 9.2.1, 9.2.2, 9.2.3, 9.3.1, 9.3.2, 9.3.3, 9.3.4) of Textbook - I
Design of Digital Filters: General Considerations: Causality and Its Implications, Characteristics of Practical Frequency-Selective Filters; Design of FIR Filters: Symmetric and Antisymmetric FIR Filters, Design of Linear-Phase FIR Filters by using Windows, Design of Linear-Phase FIR Filters by the Frequency-Sampling Method; Design of IIR Filters from Analog Filters: IIR Filter Design by Impulse Invariance, IIR Filter Design by the Bilinear Transformation. Selected portions from Chapter 10 (10.1.1, 10.1.2, 10.2.1, 10.2.2, 10.2.3, 10.2.4, 10.3.2, 10.3.3) of Textbook - I
Efficient Computation of the DFT: Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms. Efficient Computation of the DFT: FFT Algorithms: Direct Computation of the DFT, Radix-2 FFT Algorithms: Decimation-In-Time (DIT), Decimation-In-Time (DIF); Applications of FFT Algorithms: Efficient Computation of the DFT of two Real Sequences, Efficient Computation of the DFT a 2N-Point Real Sequence, Use of the FFT Algorithm in Linear Filtering and Correlation. Selected portions from Chapter 8 (8.1.1, 8.1.3, 8.2.1, 8.2.2, 8.2.3) of Textbook - I Adaptive Filters: Application of Adaptive Filters: System Identification or System Modeling, Adaptive Channel Equalization, Adaptive Line Enhancer, Adaptive Noise Cancelling; Adaptive Direct-Form FIR Filters-The LMS Algorithm: Minimum Mean Square Error Criterion, The LMS Algorithm. Selected portions from chapter 13 (13.1.1, 13.1.2, 13.1.5, 13.1.6, 13.2.1, 13.2.2) of Text book -IText Books:
Microprocessor Architecture: Microprocessor and Microcomputer Architecture, Pins & Signals, Register Organization, Timing & Control Module, 8085 Instruction Timing & Execution.
Assembly Language Programming of 8085: Instruction set of 8085, Memory & I/O Addressing, Assembly language programming, Stack & Subroutines.
Interfacing EPROM & RAM Memories: 2764 & 6264, 8085 Interrupts
(Book 1: Ch.1,2,3,4 & 7)
8086 Microprocessor: Architectures, Pin Diagrams and Timing Diagrams: Register Organisation, Architecture, Signal Description, Physical Memory Organisations, Bus Operation, I/O Addressing Capability, Special Processor Activities, Minimum Mode System and Timings, Maximum Mode System and Timings
8086 Instruction Set and Assembler Directives: Machine Language Instruction Formats, Addressing Modes, Instruction Set, Assembler Directives and Operators
Assembly Language Programming with 8086: Machine Level Programs, Machine Coding the Programs ,Programming with an Assembler
Special Architectural Features and Related Programming: Stack, Interrupts and Interrupt Service Routines, Interrupt Cycle,Non Maskable Interrupt, Maskable Interrupt, Interrupt Programming, Passing Parameters to Procedures, Handling Programs of Size More than 64k,MACROS, Timings and Delays
Basic Peripherals and Their Interfacing with 8086: Semiconductor Memory Interfacing, Dynamic RAM Interfacing, Interfacing I/O Ports, PIO 8255],Modes of Operation of 8255, Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters, Interfacing Digital to Analog to Converters, Stepper Motor Interfacing
Special Purpose Programmable Peripheral Devices and Their Interfacing: Programmable Interval Timer 8253, Programmable Interrupt Controller 8259A, The Keyboard/Display Controller 8279, Programmable Communication Interface 8251USART
DMA, Floppy Disk and CRT Controllers DMA Controller 8257,DMA Transfers and Operations, Programmable DMA Interface 8237, Floppy Disk Controller 8272, CRT Controller 8275
80386 Microprocessor: Introduction, Architecture, Pins & Signals, Memory System, Registers, Memory Management, Paging Technique, Protected Mode Operation.
(Book-2: Ch.1.1 to 1.9, ch.2.1 to 2.4,ch.3.1 to 3.3, ch.4.1 to 4.10,ch.5.1 to 5.8,ch.6.1 to 6.4, ch.7.1 to 7.5, ch.10.1 to 10.3, 10.7,10.9)
8051 Microcontrollers: Microcontrollers and embedded processors, Overview of the 8051 family
8051 Hardware Connection: Pin description of the 8051
8051 Assembly Language Programming: Inside the 8051, Assembly, Programming Assembling and Running an 8051 Program, The Program Counter and ROM Space in the 8051 8051 data types and Directives, PSW Register, register Banks and Stack
Jump, loop, and Call Instructions: Loop and Jump Instructions, Call Instructions, Time Delay for Various 8051 chips
8051 I/O Port Programming: I/O Programming, I/O Bit Manipulation Programming,
8051 Addressing Modes: Immediate and register Addressing Modes, Accessing memory using various Addressing Modes, Bit Addresses for I/O and RAM
Arithmetic & Logic Instructions and Programs: Arithmetic Instructions, Signed number concepts and Arithmetic Operations, Logic and Compare Instructions, Rotate Instruction and data Serialization, BCD, ASCII, and other Application Programs
8051 Serial Port Programming in Assembly: Basic of Serial communication, 8051 connection to RS232, 8051 Serial port Programming in Assembly, Programming the second Serial port
Interrupts Programming in Assembly: 8051 Interrupts, Programming timer Interrupts, Programming external hardware Interrupts, Programming the Serial Communication interrupt, Interrupt Priority in the 8051
ADC, DAC, and Sensor Interfacing: Parallel and Serial ADC, DAC Interfacing Sensor Interfacing and Signal Conditioning
Interfacing to External Memory: Semiconductor Memory, Memory Address Decoding, Interfacing with External ROM, 8051 Data Memory space, Accessing External data Memory
8051 Interfacing with the 8255: 8255 Interfacing, Pogramming for the 8255
Motor Control: RELAY, PWM, DC, and Stepper Motors: Relays and Opto-isolations, Stepper Motor Interfacing, DC Motor Interfacing and PWM (Book-3: Ch.1.1,1.2,ch.2.1 to 2.7,ch.3.1 to 3.3,ch.4.1,4.2,ch.5.1 to 5.3,ch.6.1 to 6.5,ch.10.1 to 10.4,ch.11.1 to 11.5,ch.13.1 to 13.3,ch.14.1 to 14.4,ch.15.1,15.2,ch.17.1 to 17.3)
INTRODUCTION: Elements of an Electrical Communication System, Communication Channels and their Characteristics, Mathematical Models for Communication Channels
FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS: Fourier series, Fourier Transforms, Power and Energy, Sampling and Band limited signals, Band pass signals
ANALOG SIGNAL TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION: Introduction to modulation, Amplitude Modulation (AM), Angle Modulation, Radio and Television broadcastingModule - III
PULSE MODULATION SYSTEMS: Pulse amplitude modulation, Pulse Time Modulation
PULSE CODE MODULATION: PCM system, Intersymbol interference, Eye patterns, Equalization, Companding, Time Division Multiplexing of PCM signals, Line codes, Bandwidth of PCM system, Noise in PCM systems, Delta Modulation (DM), Limitations of DM, Adaptive Delta Modulation, Noise in Delta Modulation, Comparison between PCM and DM, Delta or Differential PCM (DPCM), S-Ary System
Wave Optics: Wave properties of light: Propagation, polarization, interference, diffraction, transmission of light through slab and cylindrical waveguides.
Optical Fiber: Construction of step and graded index fibers, single mode and multimode fibers, loss and dispersion characteristics;
Fiber optic components: couplers, splicer, polarizer.
Sources and Detectors: Sources: LED, Lasers-fundamentals, conditions for oscillations, construction and principle of operation of gas and semiconductor, pulsed and continuous type lasers; Detectors: photodiodes- PN, PIN and APD.
Optoelectronic Instrumentation. Modulation techniques: intensity, polarization, interference, electro-optic, electromagnetic; Sensing techniques for displacement, pressure, acceleration, flow, current and voltage measurement, Fiber optic gyroscope, Distributed fiber optic sensors- OTDR and OFDR principles.Text Books:
Study of Motor Drives: Electrical Drives, Advantages of Electrical Drives, Electrical Motors, Power Modulators, Choice of electrical Drives, Fundamentals of Torque Equations, Speed Torque Conventions and Multi-quadrant Operation, Equivalent Values of Drive Parameters, Components of Load Torques, Nature and Classification of Load Torques, Calculation of Time and Energy Loss in Transient Operations, Steady State Stability, Load Equalization, Control of Electrical Drives, Thermal Model of Motor for Heating and Cooling, Classes of Motor Duty, Determination of Motor Rating.
Book-1:Ch. 1.1, Ch. 1.2, Ch. 1.3, Ch. 1.4; Ch. 2.1, Ch. 2.2, Ch. 2.3, Ch. 2.4, Ch. 2.5, Ch. 2.6, Ch. 2.7, Ch. 2.8; Ch. 3.3, Ch. 4.1; Ch. 4.2, Ch. 4.3.
Steady State Performance of DC/AC Drives: Closed Loop Control of Drives, DC Motors and their Performances, Starting, Braking, Transient Analysis, Speed Control, Methods of Armature Voltage Control, Transformer and Uncontrolled Rectifier Control, Controlled Rectifier Fed DC Drives, Chopper Controlled DC Drives.
Induction Motor Drives: Speed Control, Pole Changing, Pole Amplitude Modulation, Stator Voltage Control, Variable Frequency Control from Voltage Source, Voltage Source Inverter Control, Variable Frequency Control from Current Source, Current Source Inverter Control, Current Regulated Voltage Source Inverter Control, Rotor Resistance Control, Slip Power Recovery. Synchronous Motor Drives: Synchronous Motor Variable Speed Drives, Variable Frequency Control of Multiple Synchronous Motors.
Book-1:Ch. 5.1, Ch. 5.2, Ch. 5.3, Ch. 5.4, Ch. 5.5, Ch. 5.6, Ch. 5.8, Ch. 5.9, Ch. 5.10, Ch. 5.11, Ch. 5.12, Ch. 5.13, Ch. 5.14, Ch. 5.15, Ch. 5.18, Ch. 5.19, Ch. 5.20, Ch. 5.21; Ch. 6.8, Ch. 6.9, Ch. 6.10, Ch. 6.11, Ch. 6.12, Ch. 6.13, Ch. 6.16, Ch. 6.17, Ch. 6.18, Ch. 6.20, Ch. 6.21; Ch. 7.3.1, Ch. 7.3.2, Ch. 7.4.
Traction Drives: Nature of Traction Load, Calculation of Traction Drive Ratings and Energy Consumption, Tractive Effort and Drive Ratings, Specific Energy Consumption, Maximum Allowable Tractive Effort, Conventional DC and AC Traction Drives, 25 kV AC Traction using Semiconductor Converter Controlled DC Motors, DC Traction employing Polyphase AC Motors, AC Traction employing Polyphase AC Motors.
Book-1: Ch. 10.2, Ch. 10.6, Ch. 10.10, Ch. 10.12, Ch. 10.15, Ch. 10.16.
Drives for Specific Applications: Drive Considerations for Textile Mills, Steel Rolling Mills, Cranes and Hoist Drives, Cement Mills, Sugar Mills, Machine Tools, Paper Mills, Coal Mines, Centrifugal Pumps.
Book-2:Ch. 7.1, Ch. 7.2, Ch. 7.3, Ch. 7.4, Ch. 7.5, Ch. 7.6, Ch. 7.7, Ch. 7.8, Ch. 7.9.
Microprocessors and Control of Electrical Drives: Dedicated Hardware Systems versus Microprocessor Control, Application Areas and Functions of Microprocessors in Drive Technology, Control of DC Drives using Microprocessors.
Book-2:Ch. 8.2, Ch. 8.3, Ch. 8.4.1.
verview of Data Communications and Networking.
Physical Layer : Analog and Digital, Analog Signals, Digital Signals, Analog versus Digital, Data Rate Limits, Transmission Impairment, More about signals.
Digital Transmission: Line coding, Block coding, Sampling, Transmission mode.
Analog Transmission: Modulation of Digital Data; Telephone modems, modulation of Analog signals. Multiplexing : FDM , WDM , TDM
Transmission Media: Guided Media, Unguided media (wireless).
Circuit switching and Telephone Network: Circuit switching, Telephone network.
Data Link Layer:
Error Detection and correction: Types of Errors, Detection, Error Correction
Data Link Control and Protocols:
Flow and Error Control, Stop-and-wait ARQ. Go-Back-N ARQ, Selective Repeat ARQ, HDLC.
Point-to -Point Access: PPP
Point -to- Point Protocol, PPP Stack,
Random Access, Controlled Access, Channelization.
Local area Network: Ethernet.
Traditional Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet. Token bus, token ring
Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth virtual circuits: Frame Relay and ATM.
Host to Host Delivery: Internetworking, addressing and Routing
Network Layer Protocols: ARP, IPV4, ICMP, IPV6 ad ICMPV6
Transport Layer: Process to Process Delivery: UDP; TCP congestion control and Quality of service.
Application Layer: Client Server Model, Socket Interface, Domain Name System (DNS): Electronic Mail (SMTP) and file transfer (FTP) HTTP and WWW.
INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM: What is an Operating System? Simple Batch Systems, Multiprogramming and Time Sharing systems. Personal Computer Systems, Parallel Systems, Distributed Systems and Real time Systems. Operating System Structures: Operating System Services, System components, Protection system, Operating System Services, system calls PROCESS MANAGEMENT: Process Concept, Process Scheduling, Operation on Processes, Interprocess communication, Examples of IPC Systems, Multithreading Models, Threading Issues, Process Scheduling Basic concepts, scheduling criteria, scheduling algorithms, Thread Scheduling.Module - II
PROCESS COORDINATION: Synchronization: The Critical section problem, Peterson's solution, Synchronization hardware, Semaphores, Classical problems of synchronization, Monitors.
Deadlocks: System model, Deadlock Characterization Methods for Handling Deadlocks, Deadlock Prevention, Deadlock avoidance, Deadlock Detection, recovery from Deadlock.
MEMORY MANAGEMENT: Memory Management strategies, Logical versus Physical Address space, swapping, contiguous Allocation, Paging, Segmentation.
Virtual Memory: Background, Demand paging, performance of Demand paging, Page Replacement, Page Replacement Algorithms. Allocation of frames, Thrashing, Demand Segmentation.
STORAGE MANAGEMENT: File System Concept, Access Methods, File System Structure, File System Structure, File System Implementation, Directory implementation, Efficiency and Performance, Recovery, Overview of Mass Storage Structure, Disk Structure, Disk Scheduling, Disk Management, Swap-Space Management, I/O System Overview, I/O Hardware, Application I/O Interface, Kernel I/O Subsystem, Transforming I/O Request to Hardware Operation.
CASE STUDIES: The LINUX System, Windows XP, Windows Vista
Analog Signal Conditioning: Introduction, Principles of Analog Signal Conditioning, Signal-Level Changes, Linearization, Conversions, Zero adjustment, Span adjustment, Level changing, AC/DC Power supply, Filtering and Impedance Matching, Passive Circuits, Divider Circuit, Bridge Circuits, RC Filters, Operational Amplifiers, Op Amp Characteristics, Op Amp Specifications, Op Amp Circuits in Instrumentation, Voltage Follower, inverting Amplifier, Non- inverting Amplifier, Differential Amplifier, Active Filters, Protection Voltage-to -Current Converter, Current-to-Voltage Converter, Integrator, Linearization.
Thermal Sensors: Definition of Temperature, Metal Resistance versus Temperature Device, Thermistors, Thermocouples, Other Thermal Sensors, Design Consideration.
Mechanical Sensors Displacement, Position Sensors, Strain Sensors, Motion Sensors, Pressure Sensors, Flow Sensors.
Optical Sensors: Photodetectors, Pyrometry, Leser Principles,Applications.
Final Control Operation, Signal Conversions, Switching and Control Devices, Actuators, control Elements.
Discrete-State Process Control
Characteristics of the System, Relay Controllers and Ladder diagrams, PLCs.
Process Characteristics, Control System Parameters, Discontinuous and Continuous Controller Modes, Composite Control Modes.
Electronic controllers, pneumatic controllers, design consideration.
Casecade, Feedforward and Ratio Control
Casecade Control,Feedfrrward Control,Feedforward-feedback cControl Configuration,Ratio Control.
Selective and Adaptive Control Systems
Selective Control, Adaptive Control, Adaptive Control Configuration.
Process control Systems and Instrumentation By-Terry Bartelt , Cengage Learning Publication
List of Experiment:
Analyze and plot the spectrum of following signals with aid of spectrum analyzer: Sine wave, square wave, triangle wave, saw-tooth wave of frequencies 1KHz, 10Khz, 50Khz, 100KKz and 1 MHz.
Analyze the process of frequency division multiplexing and frequency division de-multiplexing.
Study and design of AM modulator and demodulator. (Full AM, SSB, DSBSC, SSBSC)
Study of FM modulation and Demodulation Techniques.
Observer the process of PAM, quantization and determination of quantization noise.
Multiplex 2-4 PAM/ PPM and PWM signals.
Study the functioning of PCM and Delta modulator
Using MATLAB/ SCILAB generate a carrier and a modulating signal. Modulate the carrier using AM. Show the waveform in time domain and analyze its frequency spectrum. Repeat the simulation for modulating signal being square, triangular and other forms waveform.
Using MATLAB/ SCILAB generate a carrier and a modulating signal. Modulate the carrier using FM. Show the waveform in time domain and analyze its frequency spectrum. Repeat the simulation for modulating signal being square, triangular and other forms waveform.
Using Lab-View software simulate AM modulation and demodulation system.
Using Lab-View software simulate FM modulation and demodulation system.
Design a receiver to demodulate and receive the signal from am AM radio station.
Design a receiver to demodulate and receive the signal from the local FM radio station.
Experiment objective (for simulation exercises): Verify the process of modulation and demodulation in simulation environment. Analyze frequency spectrum of the signal after modulation and demodulation. Observe the modulated and demodulated signals for different forms of modulation signal.